Jacks Beijing Tour will tell you the true history of Beijing
Jacks Beijing Tour will tell you the true history of Beijing.
It is believed human settlement in beijing dates back to more than 500,000 years ago. Beijing has a more than 3,000-year history as a city and more than 800-year history as a capital. The history of Beijing is punctuated by greatness,turmoil,power and intrigue. Located neither by an ocean , nor by a great river, the original city was strategically placed, at a major divide between nomadic herding lands to the north and agricultural lands to the south. These two cultural forces have shaped much of the city's colorful history.
(1) Beginning of Beijing Culture
Fossil record of "Peking Man"were found in Zhoukoudian , Fangshan District, in the 1920s. These dated to more than 500,000 years ago, but they could be much older. The discoveries of man-made tools and the evidence of the early use of fire astonished the world in the early 20th century.
Relics of the "Upper Cave Man" found in 1933 and those of the "New Cave Man" recovered in 1973 can be traced back to about 20,000years ago.
Localities of the "Peking Man,""New Cave Man" and the "Upper Cave Man" at Zhoukoudian testify that Beijing was home to early human beings and a relatively advanced human civilization. The UNESCO (United Nations Educational,Scientific and Cultural organization)designated the Peking Man Site at Zhoukoudian a World Heritage Site in 1987.
About 4,000-5,000 years ago, the legendary Yellow Emperror(Huang Di) and the Flame Emperor (Yan Di) were leaders of tribes and ever resided here. Legend has it that the tribe led by the Yellow Emperor defeated one led by the Yellow Emperror, and then the tribe led by Chiyou in Zhuolu (in today's Hebei Province), uniting the Chinese nation in doing so.
Zhuanxu, a third-generation successor of the Yellow Emperror, was said to have offered sacrifices to gods and ancestors in Youling, the earliest known name of Beijing area.
It is believed that Beijing entered its civilized epoch at that time.
(2)Beginning of the City
Beijing is an ancient world city. While the city's origin can be traced to more than 3,000years ago , its true significance came in the early years of the Westen Zhou Dynasty (11th century-771BC).and much of Warring States Period (475-221BC), conflicts resulted in Yan expanding its empire, swallowing up much of the surrounding land. Historical records show that the City of Ji was a famous and wealthy city.
(3)Beijing is a military hub
After Emperor Qin Shihuang conquered his rivals and unified China in 221BC., the City of Ji was chosen as the administrative centre of Guangyang Prefecture, one of the key prefectures in China's first feudal empire. Beijing became a commercial centre connecting the North and the South during peacetime and a military centre during wars.
In the ensuing centuries, there were numerous conflicts and changes. The city emerged as a frontier garrison, serving as a staging base for campaigns against the empire's nomadic enemies to the north.
During the Liao Dynasty(AD 916-1125), the city became the alternate capital of the Liao Kingdom, which was founded by the Qidan ethnic group, whose people lived in today's northeastern China. Because the city was located south of the Liao homeland,it was renamed Nanjing (in Chinese , "nan" means "south"). In 1012, Nanjing was renamed Yanjing.
(4)North China's Political Centre Become Nat Capital
During the Jin Dynasty (1115-1234), Yanjing was designated a capital and was renamed Zhongdu (Middle Capital). This was a turning point, because Beijing had become North China's political and cultural centre and was becoming a national political and cultural centre.
In the early 13th century, the Mongols led by Genghis Khan(reign:1206-27),the Supreme Khan of the Mongol empire, invaded the city, but it was left to Genghis 'grandson, Kublai Khan (reign:1260-94), to finally conquer all of China and establish the Yuan Dynasty (1271-1368)with Beijing as its capital.
The city, Dadu (Great Capital), was meticulously laid out with the same grid plan that characterises Beijing 's central urban area today. As the capital city of the Yuan Dynasty, Dadu enjoyed worldwide fame in the 13th century. Envoys, traders and travelers from Europe,Asia and Africa who paid visits to China , including Marco Polo(1254-1323,an Italian Traveller and trader), were astounded by the splendor and magnificence of the city.
After the fall of the Mongol Empire in 1368, the early Ming 1368-1644) emperors ruled from Nanjing (in today's Jiangsu Province);Ming troops conquered Dadu and renamed Dadu, the old Yuan capital , Beiping (Northern Peace). After usurping the throne from his nephew in1402, Zhu Di , also known as Emperor Yongle(reign:1403-24), renamed Beiping to Beijing (Northen Capital)in 1403 and ordered the construction of the city and the Forbidden City In 1406. Construction of the Forbidden City and the Temple of Heaven to its south was completed in 1420. In1421, Emperor Yongle relocated the capital to Beijing.
After a lengthy rule, the Ming Dynasty fell into decline. In1644, a federation of Manchurian tribes from the north , after being given free passage through the Great Wall by a disaffected general , conquered the city and established the Qing Dynasty(1644-1911). The Forbidden City was then enlarged; the Summer Palace and the Yuanmingyuan Park were built; communications with other countries increased; and the city became world-famous.
(5)Capital of the Republic of China
The People 's Republic of China was established in 1949, and Beijing became its capital.After more than half a century 's construction and development, Beijing has become an international metropolis that elegantly blends its past with modern presence. It has rich historical resources and extraordinary vibrancy.
Beijing's history reflects the development of Chinese civilization. And today, Beijing is well on its way to becoming an acknowledged World City with Chinese characteristics.
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- Senthil kumar
I would like to extend my thanks to Mr Jack for his personalized service. The kind welcome, timing and courtesy extended by Mr Jack was way behind my expectations. I also lucky to have his assistance Ms Summer together with us for whole 2 days trip.
- Howard M
Excellent tours at great prices. Our guide Jenny couldn't have been better. Spending time with her was the best possible way to see the sights in Beijing. At just slightly more than the cost of a large group tour the individual tour is really the only way to go in busy overcrowded Beijing!